100 Years of Indian National Anthem
Exactly one hundred years ago ‘Jana Gana Mana’ , Indian national anthem was penned by Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung on this day a century ago at the 1911 Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress.
Written Bengali with high mix of Sanskrit in 1911 by one of the greatest poets of the 20th century, the song fired patriotism in every Indian during the Independence movement of British rule.
Here is the transliteration and translation of Indian National Anthem
Jana gaṇa mana adhināyaka jaya he
Bhārata bhāgya vidhātā
Pañjāba Sindhu Gujarāṭa Marāṭhā
Drāviḍa Utkala Vaṅga
Vindhya Himāchala Yamunā Gaṅgā
Ucchala jaladhi taraṅga
Tav śubha nāme jāge
Tav śubha āśiṣa māge
Gāhe taba jaya gāthā
Jana gaṇa maṅgala dāyaka jaya he
Bhārata bhāgya vidhāta
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India’s destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindh,
Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Ocean.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India’s destiny.
Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, Maratha (Maharashtra), Dravida (Tamil Nadu) Orissa and Bengal (West Bengal) are different states of India.
Jamuna and Ganges (Ganga) are two of the major rivers of India.
‘Jana Gana Mana’ was adopted as the country’s national anthem by the Constituent Assembly on January 24, 1950.
The first time ‘Jana Gana Mana’ was performed on 27 December 1911 at the Indian National Congress session in Calcutta when the outfit was associated with the country’s independence movement.
Rabindranath Tagore translated “Jana Gana Mana” from Bengali to English in 1911 and also set it to music in Madanapalle, a small town in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh.
After it was translated into English, Indian students took the song beyond the country’s borders making it ‘The Morning Song of India’ and subsequently the national anthem.
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s Indian National Army adopted Jana Gana Mana as the National Anthem, while Father of Nation Mahatma Gandhi had in 1946 said the “the song has found a place in our national life.”
The song was selected as the national anthem of India in 1950 after considerable debate overruled Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay’s popular Bengali song ‘Vande Mataram’ in the face of opposition from certain communities.